List Of 54 Surgical Instruments
Surgical instruments are the basis of surgery, and many different instruments are used in an operating room. Each instrument serves a different function during the surgical procedure. Precision and skills are essential for successful surgery, so the quality of surgical instruments plays a key role in surgery.
Scalpel is an important dermatological tool for making small skin incisions, tissue dissections, and other surgical approaches. This instrument usually consists of a blade ad a handle. Scalpel blades are available in different sizes and blade numbers, each serving a different function. Surgeons mainly refer to scalpel blades with their blade numbers. Besides proper equipment, proper technique is also essential for a precise incision. Scalpel blades available are
- #10 Blade
- #11 Blade
- #15 Blade
- #10 Scalpel blade is used for making large skin incisions. It has a curved cutting edge and uses in major surgeries like laparotomy.
- #11 Scalpel blade is used for making sharp angles and precise incisions. It has an elongated triangular blade sharpened along the hypotenuse edge with a solid pointed tip. It is helpful for stabbing incisions.
- #15 Blade is a small version of #10 Blade with a slightly curved cutting edge. It is the most popular blade shape, ideal for making short and precise incisions like the excision of skin lesions and opening of coronary arteries.
Scissors are essential surgical instruments that are used for cutting tissues and sutures and are helpful for dissection. They come in different shapes and sizes. They are curved and straight and can cut delicate and heavy structures. There are a variety of scissors available, including
- Mayo Scissors
- Metzenbaum Scissors
- Pott’s Scissors
- Iris Scissors
3) Mayo Scissors:
Mayo scissors are available in straight and curved shapes, and straight mayos are known as suture scissors. These straight mayos are used for cutting sutures, and curved shape mayos are available for cutting heavy tissues.
4) Metzenbaum Scissors:
They are commonly called Metz and are used for cutting delicate tissue and blunt dissection. They are slightly curved. A common mistake while using Metz is cutting the sutures with it, which may dull the scissors.
5) Pott’s Scissors:
Potts scissors are angled and most frequently used for cutting into vascular structures, as in a venotomy or arteriotomy.
6) Iris Scissors:
These fine scissors are used for fine dissection and cutting sutures. They are initially designed for ophthalmic procedures but now serve a multipurpose role.
Surgical Forceps are surgical instruments that allow staff to grasp objects during medical and surgical procedures. Surgeons can use these instruments for applying pressure, clamping parts, and handling items. Surgical forceps are commonly used in operating rooms, emergency rooms and departments, exam rooms, and when administering first aid. They hold or remove tissue and position or remove wipes, sponges, and gauze. They offer a non-contaminated precise function for handling sensitive tissue and instruments in surgical procedures. Surgical Forceps are classified into various types, including.
- Tissue Forceps
- Bonney Forceps
- DeBakey Forceps
- Russian Forceps
- Adson Forceps
8) Tissue Forceps:
All kinds of tissue forceps have teeth at the tip of the jaws. They have different sizes and models. They create a firm grip on the tissues with a bit of trauma. They are used for handling tissues during dissection.
9) Bonney Forceps:
Bonney Tissue Forceps are made to grip thick tissues such as fascia. This surgical instrument is designed for atraumatic grasping ability during dissection.
10) DeBakey Forceps:
These are a type of atraumatic tissue forceps that are used in vascular procedures during dissection. They are usually large in size.
11) Russian Forceps:
These surgical forceps are commonly used for grasping fibrous and delicate soft tissues. This surgical instrument is ideal for wound closure or the grasping of dense tissues.
12) Adson Forceps:
These surgical forceps are toothed at the tip and used to handle dense tissue, such as skin closures.
They are called locking forceps, which are ratcheted instruments used to hold tissue or objects. They can be traumatic and atraumatic. Clamps are helpful tools for occluding, gripping, dissecting, and retracting. These include
- Crile Hemostat
- Kelly Clamp
- Kocher Clamp
- Allis and Babcock Clamps
14) Crile Hemostat:
Surgical clamps used to avoid bleeding by temporarily occluding the vessel completely or partially are called hemostats. They are also used in blunt dissection.
15) Kelly Clamp:
They are variations of hemostats used for grasping larger tissues and veins.
16) Kocher Clamp:
These are included in the list of traumatic clamps and are used to hold the removed tissues.
17) Allis And Babcock Clamps:
These surgical instruments have slightly rounded jaws on both sides and are used to grasp the intestines.
Surgical Retractors instruments hold an incision or wound open during surgery. They hold back tissues and objects to maintain a clear field during the surgery. They can be handheld or self-retaining properties. They include
- Deaver Retractor
- Army- Navy Retractor
- Weitlaner Retractor
- Richardson Retractors
- Bookwalter Retractor
- Malleable Retractor
- Rake Retractor
19) Deaver Retractor:
These hand-held retractors are used to retract deep abdominal or chest incisions and used in Cholecystectomy (removal of the gallbladder) for retraction of the right lobe of the liver and utilised in Truncal vagotomy (a division of the main trunk of the vagus nerve) for retraction of the left lobe of the liver.
20) Army- Navy Retractors:
These retractors are used to retract shallow or superficial incisions to gain exposure to skin layers. They are used in minor wounds and abdominal operations.
21) Weitlaner Retractors:
It is a popular surgical instrument commonly used in primary plastic surgery, large bone, and joint procedures. They are also called Wheaty. They are used to expose deep or small surgical sites.
22) Richardson Retractors:
These surgical instruments retract abdominal or chest incisions. They are used for holding back various layers of deep tissue. This is one of the most common general retractors. They are also called Rich.
23) BookWalter Retractors:
Bookwalter Retractors are self-retaining abdominal wall retractors with deep and shallow blades that can be attached and removed. They are anchored to the operating table.
24) Malleable Retractor:
Malleable retractors are used to retract deep wounds. They may bend to various shapes to assist in holding back tissue. They are used to protect the intestine during abdominal closure. They are also called ribbon retractors.
25) Rake Retractor:
Rake Retractor is a surgical instrument that allows surgeons to pull back tendons, skin, and other soft tissues during surgeries involving the distal part of the limbs. They are used to hold back surface structures.
Surgical suction tips are usually combined with a suction source to remove fluid and debris from the surgical site. They are also used to clear surgical smoke. They are made of high quality and have different powers to remove debris from the surgical field. Common suctions used in surgery are
- Yankauer Suction
- Pool Suction Tube
- Frazier Suction Tip
27) Yankaeur Suction:
It is an oral suction tool used for different medical procedures. It is used primarily for surface suction and some intra-abdominal suction. It consists of a large suction tip and bulbous head, allowing suction without damaging the surrounding tissues.
28) Pool Suction Tube:
It is an instrument that removes large quantities of fluid from surgical sites during surgery. It is frequently used during intra-abdominal procedures. It has many holes that prevent blockade caused by tissue and fat material during suction.
29) Frazier Suction Tip:
This suction tip is available in different sizes and is used for the removal of debris from a confined surgical site. It is used mainly in ENT and neurosurgery.
30) Energy Systems:
During surgery, different instruments emit energy and are used to cut tissues and organs or seal vessels. Ultrasonic waves and microwaves may emit energy. These are available in laparoscopic or open forms.
This surgical instrument is used to cut or cauterise tissue with the help of an electric current. This technique is often used to stop bleeding.
Ultrasonics uses high-frequency sound to cut and seal tissue. It is less thermal but less time-consuming than electrosurgery.
Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the pelvis or abdomen using small incisions with the help of a camera. The laparoscope aids in diagnosis or therapeutic interventions with a few minor cuts in the abdomen. It is also called the minimally invasive procedure. The critical element is a laparoscope, a long fibre optic cable system that provides a view of the affected area by a cable from a more distant but easily accessible location.
Endoscopic cameras are high-definition or even with 4K image resolution and produce still and video images in the surgical field for laparoscopy procedures. The camera forms one of the essential components of laparoscopy equipment. They are sensitive in the visible and infrared spectrum too.
32) Light Source:
The cold light source, xenon, halogen, or LED may be used for laparoscopy. This light source maintains a constant colour temperature and allows automatic variation of the light intensity by the camera.
An HD medical-grade monitor is part of the laparoscopic system for high-quality images to be viewed during the procedure, and the surgeon can have a clear view of the surgical site.
34) CO2 Insufflator:
An Insufflator delivers CO2 gas into the GI tract in laparoscopic examinations and operations. This gas insufflator expands the viewing and operating space within the abdomen by moving the abdominal wall away from the internal viscera. CO2 is commonly used because the human body is very used to it, and it can be absorbed by tissues and removed through the respiratory system as routine. It is also non-flammable, an essential feature since many electric devices are commonly practised in operating rooms.
35) Veress Needles:
The Veress Needle is a sterile single-patient device that establishes pneumoperitoneum before abdominal endoscopy. The Needle is stainless steel with a spring-loaded style that retracts when inserted into the abdomen. It is used to place subsequent injections of gas.
Trocars are used during laparoscopic and other minimally invasive surgeries to make small, puncture-like incisions in outer tissue layers. These incisions allow surgeons to insert cannulas to introduce surgical instruments.
37) Surgical Instruments:
Surgical instruments used in the laparoscopic procedure include forceps, probes, scissors, dissectors, hooks, retractors, etc. These instruments can perform grasping, cutting, retracting, cauterising and other functions.
38) Cardiothoracic Surgery:
Cardiothoracic surgery specialises in treating diseases affecting organs within the thorax (the chest), principally the lungs, heart, and oesophagus. Cardiopulmonary bypass, bronchoscopy, and equipment for minimally invasive thoracic procedures are frequently encountered.
Cardiopulmonary Bypass is a pump circuit that diverts blood away from the heart. This pump oxygenates the blood and removes wastes, with a separate course for a cardioplegic solution. A cardiac perfusionist operates it. Adequate anticoagulation is required for proper function.
It is an endoscope narrow enough to view, aspirate, or remove specimens from the airway and branches.
Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery:
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is a type of minimally invasive surgical technique used for the diagnosis and treatment of different problems in the chest. During this procedure, a small camera and surgical instruments are inserted into the thorax through one or multiple minor cuts in the thoracic wall. The camera used in this surgical procedure is called a thoracoscopy. This camera provides a view of the internal chest to a video monitor. This view guides the surgeon during the process.
Urology is one of the branches of surgery and encompasses diseases of the kidneys, bladder and prostate, including incontinence, impotence, infertility, cancer and reconstruction of the genito-urinary tract. It serves patients of both sexes and all ages, from newborn infants to elders.
It is a type of endoscope, either flexible or rigid, used to visualise the genitourinary system for either diagnosis or procedures. It is usually combined with saline circulation to create viewing space in the urinary bladder.
42) Urethral Bougies:
Urethral bougies are usually used to treat urethral strictures, i.e., narrowing of the urethra resulting in difficulties in urine flow. This procedure is carried out by passing a thin rod into the urethra, widening the urethral passage.
43) Urethral Sounds:
Urethral sounding is the insertion of an object or liquid into the urethra. This device may be used in urological surgery to dilate strictures or to obtain access to the urinary bladder. They are available in a variety of sizes.
44) Uretral Stent:
This stent is a soft, hollow tube. It is placed temporarily into the ureter during urological surgery. The stent maintains the patency of the ureter. It may be used temporarily for obstruction or placed before abdominal surgery to identify ureters. It is usually set with cystoscopy.
Orthopaedic surgery deals with congenital and acquired disorders, acute injuries, and chronic arthritic or overuse conditions of the bones, joints, and their associated soft tissues, including nerves, ligaments, and muscles.
This surgical instrument is used for cutting or preparing bone. Osteotomes are similar to a chisel but bevelled on both sides. They are used widely in plastic surgery, orthopaedic surgery and dental implantation.
46)Bone Cutting Forceps:
These surgical instruments are used for cutting and removing bones in Orthopedic surgery.
47) Gigli Saws:
It is a flexible wire saw that surgeons use for bone cutting. It is used primarily for amputation, where the bones have to be smoothly cut at the level of amputation.
48) Orthopedic Implants:
These are synthetic pins, nails, or prostheses used to fix broken bones or replace worn joints. They are usually implanted using special surgical equipment.
It is a small tube to diagnose and treat joint, ligament, and tendon disorders. It is usually combined with saline circulation to create joint space. It contains a system of lenses, a small video camera, and a light for viewing.
49) Bone Saw:
These are battery-powered and used for cutting bone, either freehand or with the assistance of a jig. Several bones saw versions are used for cutting small and large bones.
It is a sharp-edged and sturdy instrument used to remove or create a window in bone. This instrument’s name is a French word which means rodent.
51) Plate Benders:
These instruments bend a plate to an appropriate configuration during bone fracture surgery. They are available in multiple variations to assist in different surgical approaches.
52) Staplers And Clips:
Surgical staplers are used to staple incisions after surgery. Staples are a better option where sutures and stitches can’t help. Unlike sutures, these staples do not dissolve as your wound or incision heals.
53) Linear Stapler:
Linear staplers are used to create a linear staple line. It is not used for cutting and helps to connect tissues during minimally invasive surgeries. It may be a curved shape.
54) Circular Cutter:
It is helpful for circular cuts and staples. It is used in the anastomosis of hollow organs, e.g., the large bowel.
55) Linear Cutter:
It creates a linear cut and immediately staples both free edges. It is used in separation and anastomosis.
It is used in the ligation of vessels and may be metal or absorbable material. They are the most common alternative of sutures in ligation in patients undergoing several surgical procedures.
Robotic surgery is also called robot-assisted surgery. This surgery allows doctors to perform surgical procedures with more control, flexibility and precision than traditional techniques. Robotic surgery is usually helpful in minimally invasive procedures performed through tiny incisions. It is also sometimes used in specific traditional open surgical procedures.
57) Robot Surgical System:
It consists of an electronically powered instrument with multiple arms and interchangeable surgical tools. The surgeon works from a console while surgical technicians replace instruments as needed. The system usually operates via a laparoscopic approach.
58) Surgeon Console:
It is an operation centre for surgical systems, consisting of controls for robotic arms and stereotactic video providing a three-dimensional view of the surgical field.
59) Robotic Arm:
It is an apparatus that holds surgical instruments. It allows for an increased range of motion over laparoscopy through articulating instrument heads.